90 – The Voyage

At the June 5, 1683 Cheshire Quarterly Meeting, Henry Maddock was appointed to manage the payment for Elizabeth Jervis’ passage to Pennsylvania.

Elizabeth would have needed help arranging the voyage, and she would need a place to live when she arrived. I’m guessing that Henry Maddock helped Elizabeth with her arrangements.

Henry Maddock

Henry Maddock was born in Nantwich November 27, 1642. He was the third child of Thomas Maddock and Elizabeth Simcock.

Henry Maddock was a joyner (carpenter) and farmer.

In 1666, he married Elizabeth Kennerley. They had eight children by 1679.

A devout Quaker

Henry was a prominent member of the Quaker movement in Nantwich and Cheshire.

Henry and his in-law John Kennerley had been imprisoned for being Quakers.

The Sufferings of the People Called Quakers – Henry Maddock and John Kennerley

First Purchasers

In 1681, Henry and his brother-in-law James Kennerly purchased 1500 acres of land from William Penn. They were among the “First Purchasers” of land in Pennsylvania.

Pennsylvania First Purchasers list

The “First Purchasers” bought the land from Penn while they were still in England. Many of the first purchasers didn’t even go to Pennsylvania. They bought the land as an investment, and later re-sold smaller tracts to profit.

Voyage Preparations

In 1682, William Penn had chartered ships for 23 voyages to Pennsylvania.

In 1683, another 21 voyages followed. The ships sailed during the spring, summer and fall seasons. Five of these 1683 voyages sailed from Liverpool.

In preparation for the voyage, freight and household goods were loaded as cargo. Some people also shipped goods to trade in Pennsylvania.

Although incomplete, there are many extant port records.

There’s no record of Elizabeth loading goods on a ship. Personal belongings weren’t stored as cargo but accompanied the passenger.

Henry Maddock loaded cargo on two ships in Liverpool during that summer of 1683, the Endeavor and the Friendship.

In 1683, Liverpool was a relatively small port town, consisting of just seven main streets. Cloth, coal and salt from Lancashire and Cheshire were exchanged for sugar and tobacco from America and the West Indies. By the early 1700s, Liverpool had become a major port and the second metropolis of Great Britain.

The Endeavor

On June 22, 1683, just two weeks after Elizabeth’s request for passage money, dock workers were loading goods for Henry Maddock onto the Endeavor at Liverpool.

Cheat sheet for cargo terms:

  • cwt – hundredweight 100 or 112 pounds
  • chalder – dry measure container 36 bushels often used for coal
  • qtm – quantum quantity is
  • gad – steel in rods or small bars
  • roulette – a rolled up container
  • claytes – wattle work containers
  • ell – combined length of forearm and hand 3’9″
  • bbl – barrel about 31 gallons
  • hhd – hogshead 2 barrels about 64 gallons
  • cask – sometimes 1/2 barrel

Much of the cargo is for trade goods. No surprise that shoes and cheese are included, two important products from Nantwich. Maybe Henry hoarded the 5 tons of cheese. After all, Nantwich cheese was world famous.

Endeavor had begun loading in mid-June, and the last cargo was brought on board July 5.

Model of ketch-rigged ship

The Endeavor was a 100-ton ketch whose home port was Liverpool. The Endeavor was probably about 65 feet long and 20 feet wide.

ketch is a two-masted sailboat whose mainmast is taller than the mizzen mast (or aft-mast).

A ketch rig has an advantage over a sloop downwind and in heavy winds


The Endeavor left Liverpool in mid-July, the fourth ship to sail from Liverpool for Pennsylvania in 1683.

Were Elizabeth and her children aboard? It’s certainly possible. She didn’t have Quaker assistance until June 5, so she couldn’t have sailed on an earlier Liverpool ship that year. And there was only one more sailing from Liverpool in 1683, the Friendship.

The Friendship

Just weeks after the Endeavor sailed, dockhands were loading goods onto the Friendship of Liverpool.

Henry loaded a lot of trade goods.

Friendship was smaller than Endeavor, with a displacement of 60 tons. She had a crew of six.

The last goods went onto Friendship on September 13. She set sail a few days later. Friendship was the fifth and last ship to sail from Liverpool to Pennsylvania in 1683.

Henry may have brought these goods to customs too late to go on the earlier ship, or perhaps Henry himself had not been able to leave so early. It seems likely that he came on the Friendship

Passengers and Ships Prior to 1684

Once again, we don’t see any cargo loaded for Elizabeth Jervis. Perhaps one of the boxes or trunks or hogsheads in Henry Maddock’s cargo held Elizabeth’s goods.

We don’t have passenger records for Elizabeth and her children, but they were almost certainly on Endeavor or Friendship.

The Crossing

These were not large ships – the Endeavor at 100 tons and Friendship at 60 tons. But they carried a surprising amount of goods, and then crowded about 40 passengers on board.

Besides cargo, the passengers themselves took clothing and bedding and food. Small luxuries like butter and sugar could improve the ship’s food. They took cooking pots and knives and spoons. Some families cooked their own food.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is image-passengers-aboard-ship.jpg

The route was to the south, along the Bristol channel. A final stop for water and more provisions and the ships sailed into the open sea, losing sight of England and land.

There were no bathrooms on board. If they wanted to wash, they had to wash in salty water from the sea. Most likely they may have worn the same clothes for the entire voyage.

Although, from time to time, fresh fish or turtles might be caught if weather permitted, meals usually consisted of “salt horse” (salted beef, pork or fish) and “hardtack” (hard, dry biscuits). There were dried peas and beans, cheese and butter. 

The Voyage of the Welcome

Eight weeks was an average time for the crossing against prevailing westerly winds. Some ships had made the crossing in forty days, while others were becalmed and took almost three months. Ships that left England at the same time might arrive eight weeks apart.

having been abroad for eleaven weeks before we made the land. It was not for want of art, but contrary winds

Edward Jones, letter to John Thomas, aboard Lyon of Liverpool, 1682

Deaths were not uncommon during the voyage. On one ship, smallpox killed thirty people. All in all, the voyages were successful.

Blessed be the Lord, that of the 23 ships none miscarried…

… only two or three had the small pox.

William Penn, December 1682

Arrival in the Delaware

First sight of land was greeted with relief and apprehension. The ships were at the mouth of Delaware Bay, and there still remained 85 miles, perhaps a week to get up the Delaware River to Upland (Chester).


Endeavor arrived in the Delaware River at the end of September.

Endeavor bore passengers who registered their arrival a year or more afterwards as September 29, 1683. But whoever transcribed their information wrote in the registry book in error that the ship’s home port was London, instead of Liverpool.

Passengers and Ships Prior to 1684

Was Elizabeth on the Endeavor? The timing of arrival, and the quote about not registering arrival until a year later, match up well, since Elizabeth isn’t on any list.


Friendship arrived in the Delaware River at Chester by November 21, 1683. The passage had been fast, less than two months.

On arrival, several of its passengers obtained warrants for land to be laid out in the province.

Passengers and Ships Prior to 1684

Was Elizabeth on the Friendship?  The timing of arrival, and the quote about obtaining warrants, match up well, since Elizabeth’s warrant was surveyed February 4, 1684, just over two months later.

Elizabeth Jervis is in Pennsylvania

It’s been a ride.

Nibbles Extra Credit

The log of the vessel Submission, 1682


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